Mahajan, Sanjoy. “Were Colonial Americans More Literate than Americans Today?” Freaknomics blog , 1 September 2011.
Roser, Max & Esteban Ortiz-Ospina. “Literacy Rates around the World from the 15th Century to Present – Our World in Data, with Data from Various Sources.” Our World in Data: Literacy. On-line graph at https://ourworldindata.org/literacy/ , ca. 2012. (Great overviewof the changes over time . . . extensive research on world literacy.)
Snyder, Tom (Ed.). “Literacy from 1870to 1970.” National Center for Education Statistics. (Excerpts from Chapter 1 of 120 Years of American Education: A Statistical Portrait, 1993). On-line at https://nces.ed.gov/naal/lit_history.asp .
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